The House of Stewart was the royal house of Scotland from the fourteenth century, beginning with Robert the Bruce in 1314, who won independence from Britain. Another famous descendent of the family was Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-1587). In 1603, James VI succeeded Elizabeth I of England, who died childless. James VI ruled both Scotland and England, uniting the countries, but the age-old rivalry between Scotland and England made this succession difficult for the English to bear. His son, Charles I, was murdered by Cromwell. In 1660, Charles II was named King of England and Scotland, uniting the countries under the Stewart dynasty once again. But it was not to last. The Stewarts were ousted and replaced by the current dynasty, the Hanovers.